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Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. The number 0 may or may not be considered a natural number , but it is a whole number and hence a rational number and a real number as well as an algebraic number and a complex number.
The number 0 is neither positive nor negative and is usually displayed as the central number in a number line. It is neither a prime number nor a composite number. It cannot be prime because it has an infinite number of factors , and cannot be composite because it cannot be expressed as a product of prime numbers 0 must always be one of the factors.
The following are some basic elementary rules for dealing with the number 0. These rules apply for any real or complex number x , unless otherwise stated. The sum of 0 numbers the empty sum is 0, and the product of 0 numbers the empty product is 1.
The value zero plays a special role for many physical quantities. For some quantities, the zero level is naturally distinguished from all other levels, whereas for others it is more or less arbitrarily chosen. For example, for an absolute temperature as measured in kelvins zero is the lowest possible value negative temperatures are defined, but negative-temperature systems are not actually colder.
This is in contrast to for example temperatures on the Celsius scale, where zero is arbitrarily defined to be at the freezing point of water.
Measuring sound intensity in decibels or phons , the zero level is arbitrarily set at a reference value—for example, at a value for the threshold of hearing. In physics , the zero-point energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may possess and is the energy of the ground state of the system.
Zero has been proposed as the atomic number of the theoretical element tetraneutron. It has been shown that a cluster of four neutrons may be stable enough to be considered an atom in its own right. This would create an element with no protons and no charge on its nucleus. As early as , Andreas von Antropoff coined the term neutronium for a conjectured form of matter made up of neutrons with no protons, which he placed as the chemical element of atomic number zero at the head of his new version of the periodic table.
It was subsequently placed as a noble gas in the middle of several spiral representations of the periodic system for classifying the chemical elements. The most common practice throughout human history has been to start counting at one, and this is the practice in early classic computer science programming languages such as Fortran and COBOL.
However, in the late s LISP introduced zero-based numbering for arrays while Algol 58 introduced completely flexible basing for array subscripts allowing any positive, negative, or zero integer as base for array subscripts , and most subsequent programming languages adopted one or other of these positions. This permits an array element's location to be calculated by adding the index directly to address of the array, whereas 1-based languages precalculate the array's base address to be the position one element before the first.
There can be confusion between 0- and 1-based indexing, for example Java's JDBC indexes parameters from 1 although Java itself uses 0-based indexing.
In databases, it is possible for a field not to have a value. It is then said to have a null value. For text fields this is not blank nor the empty string.
The presence of null values leads to three-valued logic. No longer is a condition either true or false , but it can be undetermined. Any computation including a null value delivers a null result. A null pointer is a pointer in a computer program that does not point to any object or function. In C, the integer constant 0 is converted into the null pointer at compile time when it appears in a pointer context, and so 0 is a standard way to refer to the null pointer in code.
However, the internal representation of the null pointer may be any bit pattern possibly different values for different data types. However, in some computer hardware signed number representations , zero has two distinct representations, a positive one grouped with the positive numbers and a negative one grouped with the negatives; this kind of dual representation is known as signed zero , with the latter form sometimes called negative zero.
In binary, 0 represents the value for "off", which means no electricity flow. The Unix epoch the date and time associated with a zero timestamp begins the midnight before the first of January The MacOS epoch and Palm OS epoch the date and time associated with a zero timestamp begins the midnight before the first of January Many APIs and operating systems that require applications to return an integer value as an exit status typically use zero to indicate success and non-zero values to indicate specific error or warning conditions.
The modern numerical digit 0 is usually written as a circle or ellipse. Traditionally, many print typefaces made the capital letter O more rounded than the narrower, elliptical digit 0. The distinction came into prominence on modern character displays. A slashed zero can be used to distinguish the number from the letter. One variation uses a short vertical bar instead of the dot.
Some fonts designed for use with computers made one of the capital-O—digit-0 pair more rounded and the other more angular closer to a rectangle. A further distinction is made in falsification-hindering typeface as used on German car number plates by slitting open the digit 0 on the upper right side. Sometimes the digit 0 is used either exclusively, or not at all, to avoid confusion altogether.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from 0 number. This article is about the number and digit 0. It is not to be confused with the letter O. For other uses, see 0 disambiguation and Zero disambiguation. For the Stolen Babies album, see Naught album. List of numbers — Integers. Names for the number 0 and Names for the number 0 in English. History of the Hindu—Arabic numeral system. Retrieved 24 April Number words and number symbols: Archived from the original on 7 March Arabic sifr in the meaning of zero is a translation of the corresponding India sunya.
From the Birth of Numbers, W. The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. The Crest of the Peacock: The Nothing That Is: A Natural History of Zero. Archived from the original on 28 November Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 21 September A History of Mathematics: From Mesopotamia to Modernity: From Mesopotamia to Modernity.
Lun; Hui Liu The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art: A Concise History of Mathematics. How India's invention of zero helped create modern mathematics". Retrieved 26 May The Rosen Publishing Group. A History of Astronomy. Constantine to Dante — A. In , at Mansur's behest, translations were made of the Siddhantas — Indian astronomical treatises dating as far back as BC; these versions may have the vehicle through which the "Arabic" numerals and the zero were brought from India into Islam.
In , al-Khwarizmi used the Hindu numerals in his astronomical tables. The Inventor Of Algebra. English translation, Springer, Proof Techniques and Mathematical Structures. The historical roots of elementary mathematics. From zero to infinity: Mathematical Association of America. Solutions for Database Developers and Administrators"