The Party had generally been aligned with the Social Democrats and Catholic Church during the rise of Nazism, being critical of Nazi ideology , but voting nonetheless for the Enabling Act of which granted Hitler dictatorial authority. Until then, Lippert had been one of the few executioners of the purge to evade trial. Lippert was convicted and sentenced to 18 months in prison. As the purge claimed the lives of so many prominent Germans, it could hardly be kept secret. At first, its architects seemed split on how to handle the event.
If anyone reproaches me and asks why I did not resort to the regular courts of justice, then all I can say is this. In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I became the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason, and I further gave the order to cauterise down to the raw flesh the ulcers of this poisoning of the wells in our domestic life. Let the nation know that its existence—which depends on its internal order and security—cannot be threatened with impunity by anyone!
And let it be known for all time to come that if anyone raises his hand to strike the State, then certain death is his lot. Concerned with presenting the massacre as legally sanctioned, Hitler had the cabinet approve a measure on July 3 that declared, "The measures taken on June 30, July 1 and 2 to suppress treasonous assaults are legal as acts of self-defence by the State.
Almost unanimously, the army applauded the Night of the Long Knives, even though the generals Kurt von Schleicher and Ferdinand von Bredow were among the victims. The ailing President Hindenburg , Germany's highly revered military hero, sent a telegram expressing his "profoundly felt gratitude" and congratulated Hitler for "nipping treason in the bud.
The army's support for the purge, however, would have far-reaching consequences for the institution. The humbling of the SA ended the threat it had posed to the army but, by standing by Hitler during the purge, the army bound itself more tightly to the Nazi regime. Rumours about the Night of the Long Knives rapidly spread. Although many Germans approached the official news of the events as described by Joseph Goebbels with a great deal of scepticism, many others took the regime at its word, and believed that Hitler had saved Germany from a descent into chaos.
She even compared him to Frederick the Great , the 18th-century King of Prussia. Others were appalled at the scale of the executions and at the relative complacency of many of their fellow Germans. Excellency, the gravity of the moment has compelled us to appeal to you as our Supreme Commander. The destiny of our country is at stake. Your Excellency has thrice before saved Germany from foundering, at Tannenberg , at the end of the War and at the moment of your election as Reich President.
Excellency, save Germany for the fourth time! The undersigned Generals and senior officers swear to preserve to the last breath their loyalty to you and the Fatherland. In late —early , Werner von Fritsch and Werner von Blomberg , who had been shamed into joining Hammerstein and Mackensen's rehabilitation campaign, successfully pressured Hitler into rehabilitating Generals von Schleicher and von Bredow.
He asked, "What would people have said if I had done such a thing? Hitler ordered him, as one prominent historian described it, to put an end to "homosexuality, debauchery, drunkenness, and high living" in the SA. Membership in the organisation plummeted from 2. According to Speer , "the Right, represented by the President, the Minister of Justice, and the generals, lined up behind Hitler The Night of the Long Knives represented a triumph for Hitler, and a turning point for the German government.
It established Hitler as "the supreme leader of the German people", as he put it in his July 13 speech to the Reichstag. Hitler formally adopted this title in April , thus placing himself de jure as well as de facto above the reach of the law. Centuries of jurisprudence proscribing extrajudicial killings were swept aside. Despite some initial efforts by local prosecutors to take legal action against those who carried out the murders, which the regime rapidly quashed, it appeared that no law would constrain Hitler in his use of power.
In this manner, the purge established a pattern of violence that would characterise the Nazi regime. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives disambiguation.
Victims of the Night of the Long Knives. Some estimates, however, put the total number killed at between and Johnson , p. The Nazis were the largest party in the legislature but were still considerably short of a majority. How seriously Hitler took the socialist character of National Socialism was to remain one of the main causes of disagreement and division within the Nazi party up to the summer of Frei , p.
If that was indeed true then, as a legal matter, the law was entirely unnecessary and redundant. Kershaw , p. Dodd papers; - Wheeler-Bennett, John W. The German Army in Politics , London: Verlag Willmuth Arenhovel, pp. Winkle, The Nazi Germany Sourcebook: An Anthology of Texts, p.
Political Violence and the Rise of Nazism: The Storm Troopers in Eastern Germany — A Study in Tyranny. Collier, Martin; Pedley, Phillip Hitler and the Nazi State. Cook, Stan; Bender, Roger James Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler: The Third Reich in Power. National Socialist Rule in Germany: The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS. Modern Times — the World from the Twenties to the Nineties. Kempka, Erich October 15, Image and Reality in the Third Reich. I Will Bear Witness: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer.
The German Army and the Nazi Party — Class and Status in Nazi Germany, — Generalfeldmarschall August von Mackensen, eine politische Biographie. Shirer, William L The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich.
Inside the Third Reich. Hitler and Nazi Germany: The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics — The German Army in Politics — 2nd ed. Von Papen, Franz United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. After this I became a lacto-ovo vegetarian, when I immediately received an offer to work at a hotel at a summer resort for 10 weeks. Most interesting changes occurred in me physically and mentally on this diet following the fast. I soon developed a sense of smell like a bloodhound.
I could tell what diseases people had just by the radiations given off by their bodies. My psychic abilities suddenly blossomed and I frequently picked up their thoughts, without trying to. My life flowed so smoothly that I was like an expanded consciousness, emotionally very calm, hardly aware of my body, which functioned effortlessly. After I experimented with diet changes after 2 months, adding bread and some meat to my diet, I began to notice emotional changes and desires entering my consciousness and the sudden loss of my super-sensitive sense of smell.
I felt as if I had fallen from the Garden of Eden, and longed to return to this wonderful tranquility I had lost. I knew that in the years to come I would be impelled further and further onward, in an adventure as fascinating as Ulysses' travels were to him. His beautiful, alert expression in his photograph of his "Mucusless Duet Healing System", was very inspirational to me. He stated that all diseases were caused by mucus produced by the unnatural food eaten, and that the best and most perfect food was fruit, along with some green leafy vegetables, and that man could reach perfection on such food alone.
Thus began my experiments with "Fruitarianism". At intervals I went on long juice programs - some 10 days, other 20 days, several times each year. At one point, after living on grapefruit juice alone for more than 2 weeks occasionally canned and unsweetened I noticed my gums began to bleed and swell, and when I got to about the 18th day, my teeth began to loosen in my gums.
This began to alarm me, so I discontinued these juices. Years later, while working as a musician in Ashbury Park, New Jersey, I went on a 70 day fresh orange juice diet with no other foods. I chewed on about 1 dozen oranges each meal and spitting the pulp out. I craved vegetables but refused to eat them, believing in Arnold Ehret's insistence that fruit was a perfect food - the Garden of Eden diet intended for man's highest spiritual evolution. My weight was maintained and I ate large amounts of fruit, feeling fine throughout.
For weeks and months, my weight remained the same basically, even with all the fasting. I looked forward to these fast days since they were my most productive days - no distractions with eating, could sleep as much as I wanted, enjoyed reading, studying and thinking even on philosophical subjects. Christopher Gian-Cursio, who introduced me to a new wonderful world of balanced nutrition, which I went into deeply, with the intention of becoming a practitioner some day.
He told me about his experiences while following Arnold Ehret, which led to deficiencies in his diet. He once went on a grape cure, recommended by Johanna Brandt. He lived on nothing but grapes, cases of them for about 35 days. He ate pounds of them at each meal.
By the 32nd day, his gum was bleeding, and his teeth loosened in their sockets. He said that one of his teeth fell out of his mouth. He exclaimed, "My God, I am detoxicating my teeth. It wasn't until later, when he read a booklet by a famous British nutritionist entitled "Fruit, It's Use and Misuse". He said it was the best book he ever read on fruit. I later read his book, but don't recall his name.
This doctor stated that according to the theory of nutrition, fruit was alkaline in it's ash effect after digestion and was good for you. But, after what he observed in many people, he came to the conclusion that the alkaline ash present after digestion was due to the fruit acids leeching out the minerals from the body to neutralize the acids in the fruit.
The body was not gaining in mineral content, but was losing the minerals from the bones, teeth and body instead. The theory was based on a faulty interpretation of what actually happened. This clearly explained what had happened to me on my citric-acid fruit-juice diet.
This also explained what had happened to Dr. Cursio on his grape diet, rich in malic acid. This explained what had happened to many people who went on acid fruit diets. I remember when I was in a hotel in New York working with an orchestra, when several of my teeth had loosened up, and one abcessed tooth caused my face to swell greatly.
Not wanting to quit the job, I began an immediate fast on water alone, a method I had always used in emergencies, whenever I was in pain. In a few days, the swelling and pain subsided and was completely gone by the 10th day and 2 days later I felt something in my mouth.
I took it out and it was a molar tooth with a big hole through it. My body had ejected the dead tooth - first by producing an inflammation in my jawbone, followed by the loosening and discard of the dead tooth. The same thing happened to me at another time in my life when my body discarded another dead tooth the same way. When I told the story to 2 dentists, they said they never heard of this before. When my jawbone receded from the tooth, due to the loss of minerals from the acid in the fruit, I years later lost 2 healthy teeth due to the jawbone receding off the teeth.
A surgeon dentist who was a Natural Hygienist and later became my dentist, in Rockaway Beach, Moe Leichter, told me that the worst recession of the gums and loss of teeth he saw in patients were in vegetarians and Natural Hygienists who lived mostly on fruit.
He said that their teeth were ridged, soft in some, and lacking in calcium. He believed it was best to avoid heavy use of acid fruit. Curio eventually recommended the use of only sub-acid fruits, low in acids, like pears, golden delicious apples, and non-acid fruits like melons, is the best of the fruits. My two favorite fruits, honey dews and green Kadota figs were problematic to me. After rinsing my mouth, my tongue was red, and I'd get occasional blisters on my lips.
Honey dews, in I ate the whole melon, would cause my mouth and tongue to burn. When I rinsed my mouth the water was pink and sometimes bloody from the acid irritation. I remember when I was in my teens, I would go down around Hudson Street in lower Manhattan to an animal importing house, owned by Henry Trefflech. He'd have hundred of Rhesus monkeys who were fed heavily on grain and some would develop bloody dysentery causing death in a few days. I would take them home, put them on a water fast and within a few days the dysentery would stop and they'd be well.
Then I'd try different diets on them to gain experience, and when they reached good health I'd sell or give them to ape shops and look for more sick monkeys. I was somewhat annoyed to see them bite into expensive figs, eat the soft sweet center and seeds, and throw away the whole outside the acid part.
They never ate the skins or unripe part of fruit. This caused me to discard anything I couldn't chew down, and kept that practice going the rest of my life. My fruitarian diet experiences, the problems I saw with fruitarians who believed that fruit was God's gift to mankind, the dentist's years of experience, led me to live mostly on melons, especially watermelon.
I had always been a great lover of fruits, especially melons, which I ate liberally, considering it a natural food. My diet at that time had been mostly raw consisting of salads whole and blended , large amounts of fruits, some nuts, seeds, fish, sea food and occasional chicken. I had lived on a 1 meal a day plan for more than 35 years.
I ate only at night after a days work, having nothing but water at all times. I had developed the habit of eating slowly, chewing all food well.
Almost always I felt wonderful, and having an empty stomach most of the day allowed me to have all my energy easily available for mental and physical work. The only problem that resulted from living on 1 meal a day was that I wound up, after years, eating almost the amount of food in that one meal that consisted of a total of 3 moderate-sized meals in bulk.
Since I always ate foods in the correct sequence the most liquid first, and the most solid last, as well as in the right combinations , I had no difficulty digesting my meals even though the weight of that one daily meal added up to several pounds, frequently over 3 lbs. With occasional interruptions of telephone calls lasting 20 minutes or so, the time I spent eating that one daily meal added up to an average 3 to 4 hours or more at night.
The largeness of the many-coursed meal provided my body with enough nutrition to satisfy all my needs for the remaining 20 hours that I ate nothing, and I was never hungry the rest of the time. By the following evening, my food was thoroughly digested, with all senses alert and a keen appetite always present.
It was a wonderful lifestyle, living with energy truly available at all times for even the most demanding mental or physical work, due to an empty, peaceful stomach. Most people, even doctors, are not aware of the fact that the greatest expenditure of energy in the body occurs in the digestion of food.
Most of our energy is lost in the digestive process, so that even an extra slice of bread, eaten beyond the body's need for food, can account for 3 to 4 hours of energy used up in manual labor, such as shoveling snow.
When not eating breakfast or lunch, this energy becomes available for even the most difficult and prolonged mental concentration, even exceptional sex ability, and when not used, provides a feeling of exhilaration of mind and body which lasts all day, every day, with rare exceptions. The only time I felt tired was after eating when I enjoyed relaxation or sleep.
FRUIT AND SLEEP At one time, in studying the harmful effect of excess carbohydrates and its connection to almost all diseases, even though I had previously considered fresh fruit as a natural and healthy food, I experimented with eliminating it totally from my diet for several weeks. I wanted to find out if the sugar in fruit could be harmful, even though fruit was rich in nutrients, calories, minerals, etc.
At that time I found that I felt alright if I could get at least 8 hours sleep, but then, I felt better with 9 hours, and even better with 10 hours sleep, which I attributed to my advancing age. I received a call from a herbalist who was interested in old rare Natural Hygiene books and all books on health. He visited me and we spent almost 8 hours each day for about 5 days, wherein he chose books and we negotiated prices on each. He purchased half of my library, spending thousands of dollars on these books.
Having very little time left to eat, I decided to omit all fruit from my diet and live only on salads, proteins and some fat in one moderate meal. The next day he came early when I had only slept 3 hours. Usually, if I slept less than 5 hours any night, the next day I would feel fatigued after a few hours. When driving I would get sleepy occasionally and had to be careful to not doze off and when difficult to keep awake, I would put the car to a side and rest my eyes and try to doze for even a few minutes.
I was very surprised to find that I was not tired at all, but full of energy as though I had 9 or 10 hours sleep. This continued for 5 days of book sales, even though many hours were spent daily on boring negotiations on many single books. I stayed on this diet of no fruit at all for about 3 weeks, finding that I felt good as long as I would get at least 5 hours sleep a night on the average.
Then after the 3 weeks I decided to go back to eating fruit again to determine the difference in how I felt. As soon as I added fruit to the diet, I found that I needed a lot more a sleep that same night, sometimes as much as 12 hours if I ate a lot of fruit.
I discussed this with Dr. Aajonus Vonderplanitz, a nutritionist in California, and he said that he also needed a lot more sleep after eating fruit. He gained weight quickly from fruit and any cooked food. This had been my experience. The explanation was that the sugar in fruit, even though considered "natural", retained fluid in the body just as salt did.
Since sugar in excess in the blood can be considered dangerous, the body keeps it well diluted in fluid as a safety measure. I recalled days in the past when I had eaten large amounts of watermelon in the late afternoon. That night, 8 hours later I was awakened in my sleep sometimes 8 to 10 times during this night to urinate.
I began to avoid these binges due to this sleep disturbance. There is no condition which is not affected adversely by an excess of sugar in the blood. Richard Bernstein, recommended highly by Drs. Eades, was a type 1 diabetic, who was deteriorating rapidly in vision, legs were losing sensation, along with other very serious problems. He began to experiment on his diet in an attempt to create a stable blood sugar which remained in a normal range at all times, even after meals.
After years he succeeded only after eliminating all fruit from his diet appr. And by limiting his consumption of vegetables which contain only 1 gram of carbs per ounce to 1 cup of tossed salad at the beginning of 3 meals a day, which included oil and a little vinegar or lemon. Known as perhaps the world's greatest authority on diabetes, he restricted his carbohydrates to a total of 14 grams a day of salad or cooked starchless vegetables , stabilized his blood sugar at all times and became a super-athlete in his 60's, an anaerobic athlete comparable to the world's great athletes.
We know that even if no carbohydrates at all are eaten, the body can convert protein to carbohydrates needed by the brain and special organs viz. When I stopped eating fruit, - tomatoes, cucumbers and succulent vegetables became fruit for me, and I began to taste the sugar in vegetables. After a few weeks I rarely thought about fruit and enjoyed a life of great calmness and tranquility, free from the fluctuations in emotions and moods that consistently follow sugar and fruit lovers.
Another bonus was control of weight at all times, which for me was a god-send.